Homework, please use your textbook (Access to History, Germany: The Third Reich, Geoff Layton)
1. P10: How did Hitler create a dictatorship in two months?
2. P13: In which ways did the Nazis achieve Gleichschaltung (co-ordination)?
3. P15: How advanced was the process of Gleichschaltung by the end of 1933?
4. P16 - 23: Write a short paragraph that addresses the question: Did Germany undergo a political revolution in the years 1933 – 1934? (p23)
In your paragraph, make reference to the following:
Hitler’s ‘revolution from above’, Rohm’s ‘second revolution’, night of the long knives, different political interests such as the Junkers, big business, civil service and the army, arguments for and against the concept of a revolution.
Key terms you need to know the meaning/significance of (in detail). Use your textbook and the internet:
3. Reichstag fire
4. Enabling Act
8. Night of the long knives
9. Ernst Rohm and his views on “revolution” and the role of the SA.
More material here: Germany Folder of the Google Drive
Richard Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, P130, on Rohm, post 1923.
The composition of his book [Mein Kampf], the massive publicity he gained from the trial, the adulation that poured in from the nationalist right after the attempted putsch, all helped convince Hitler, if he had not been convinced before, that he was the man to turn these views into reality. The failed putsch also taught him that he would not even be able to take the first step - the acquisition of supreme power in Germany itself - by relying on paramilitary violence alone. A ‘march on Rome’ was out of the question in Germany. It was essential to win mass public support, by the propaganda and public-speaking campaigns which Hitler knew were his forte. The revolutionary conquest of power, still favoured by Röhm, would not work in any case if it was undertaken without the support of the army, so conspicuously lacking in November 1923. Hitler did not, as was sometimes later said, even by himself, embark on a path of ‘legality’ in the wake of the failed putsch. But he did realize that toppling the Weimar ‘system’ would require more than a few ill-directed gunshots, even in a year of supreme crisis such as 1923. Coming to power clearly required collaboration from key elements in the establishment, and although he had enjoyed some support in 1923, it had not proved sufficient. In the next crisis, which was to occur less than a decade later, he made sure he had the army and the key institutions of the state either neutralized, or actively working for him, unlike in 1923.80 Meanwhile, however, the situation of the Nazi Party seemed almost irretrievable in the wake of Hitler’s arrest and imprisonment. The paramilitary groups broke up in disorder, and their arms were confiscated by the government. Kahr, Lossow and Seisser, badly compromised by the putsch, were pushed aside by a new cabinet under the Bavarian People’s Party leader, Heinrich Held. Bavarian separatism and ultra-nationalist conspiracies gave way to more conventional regional politics. The situation calmed down as the hyperinflation came to an end and the policy of ‘fulfilment’ took hold in Berlin, bearing fruit almost immediately with the rescheduling of reparations under the Dawes Plan. Deprived of their leader, the Nazis split up into tiny squabbling factions again. Röhm continued to try and reunite the remaining fragments of the paramilitaries in allegiance to Ludendorff. Hitler put Alfred Rosenberg in charge of the Nazi Party as virtually the only leading figure left in the country who was still at large. But Rosenberg proved completely incapable of establishing any authority over the movement